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Despite the gigantic size of Jupiter the Sun comprises more than 98% of the total mass of the Solar System.
The Sun is older than the planets of our Solar System. The planets (Earth, Jupiter etc.) are estimated to be 4.6-4.7 billion years old. It is still not yet known exactly how old the Sun really is.
The minimum distance between the Sun and the Earth is 150 million kilometers.
The diameter of the Sun is 1,390,400 km. By contrast, the Earth's diameter is 12,756 km and thus, it would fit 109 times into the Sun.
The Sun's circumference is 4,379,000 km and the Earth's circumference is 40,075 km.
The surface of the Sun is 11,990 times bigger than the Earth's surface.
The Sun rotates too. But it takes 25 days, 9 hours and 7 minutes to rotate once.
The Sun is composed primarily of the chemical elements hydrogen and helium. Latest findings have determined that the Sun's atmosphere consists of 28% hydrogen and 70% helium and, due to constant activities in the core, these values change constantly.
It is known that the core temperature of the Sun is approximately 14 million degrees Celsius. The surface temperature is about 5,500 degrees Celsius.
The surface gravity of the Sun is 274 m/s². Gravity on Earth is 9.8 m/s². This means that a person who weighs 100 kg on Earth would weigh 2,822 kg on the Sun.
The mass of the Sun is 1.99 x 1030kilograms. Thus, the Sun is 333,400 times the mass of the Earth. Moreover, the Sun consists 99.86 percent of the mass of the whole Solar System. This is amazing, considering that Jupiter or Saturn are not small planets.
Being the biggest energy source, the Sun anually provides energy of approximately 1.5 x 1018 kWh on the Earth's surface. That's more than 10,000 times the world's energy needs in 2010 (1.4 x 1014 kWh/year).
In Central Europe the annually irradiated energy is about 1,000 kWh per squar metre while in the Sahara it is approx. 2,350 kWh per square metre.
There are several scenarios about how the renewable energy supply in the EU could be achieved. One of the theories involves energy conversion in North Africa and high voltage direct current (DC) transmission. Satellite-based studies by the German Aerospace Centre(DLR) showed that less than 0.3 per cent of the available desert areas in North Africa and in the Middle East would be big enough to generate electricity and water by solar thermal power plants for the growing demand of these countries as well as for Europe.
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